The human umbilical cord Wharton's Jelly- and the bone marrow- mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs and BM-MSCs, respectively) and the newly identified dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells (DPPSCs) are new sources for stem cells with prospective use in cell regeneration and therapy. These cells are self-renewable, can be differentiated into several lineages, and can potentiate the immune responses. We hypothesized that three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions and directed differentiation using specific signaling regulators will enhance an efficient generation of mesoderm (MD) lineage independent from the origin or source of the stem cells. For a period of 3-days, cell aggregates were generated in a serum-free media containing ascorbic acid, retinoic acid, and keratinocyte growth factor; sonic hedgehog and bone morphogenic protein-4 signaling were inhibited using small molecules. In all cell types used, the biochemical and molecular analysis revealed a time course-dependent induction of the mesodermal, but not endodermal or ectodermal makers. In this study, we utilized a novel and efficient serum-free protocol to differentiate WJ-MSCs, BM-MSCs, and DPPSCs into MD-cells. Successful development of an efficient differentiation protocol can further be utilized and expanded on to obtain MD- derivative cell lineages.
- serum-free conditional media