Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is caused by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet β-cells, which are required for the production of insulin. Islet transplantation has been shown to be an effective treatment option for T1DM; however, the current shortage of human islet donors limits the application of this treatment to patients with brittle T1DM. Xenotransplantation of pig islets is a potential solution to the shortage of human donor islets provided xenograft rejection is prevented. We demonstrated that a short-term administration of a combination of anti-LFA-1 and anti-CD154 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was highly effective in preventing rejection of neonatal porcine islet (NPI) xenografts in non-autoimmune-prone B6 mice. However, the efficacy of this therapy in preventing rejection of NPI xenografts in autoimmune-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice is not known. Given that the current application of islet transplantation is for the treatment of T1DM, we set out to determine whether a combination of anti-LFA-1 and anti-CD154 mAbs could promote long-term survival of NPI xenografts in NOD mice. Short-term administration of a combination of anti-LFA-1 and anti-CD154 mAbs, which we found highly effective in preventing rejection of NPI xenografts in B6 mice, failed to promote long-term survival of NPI xenografts in NOD mice. However, addition of anti-CD4 mAb to short-term treatment of a combination of anti-LFA-1 and anti-CD154 mAbs resulted in xenograft function in 9/12 animals and long-term graft (>100 days) survival in 2/12 mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of islet grafts from these mice identified numerous insulin-producing β-cells. Moreover, the anti-porcine antibody as well as autoreactive antibody responses in these mice was reduced similar to those observed in naive nontransplanted mice. These data demonstrate that simultaneous targeting of LFA-1, CD154, and CD4 molecules can be effective in inducing long-term islet xenograft survival and function in autoimmune-prone NOD mice.
- Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)
- Neonatal porcine islets (NPI)
- Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)