Early insight into antibody-dependent enhancement after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination

Amal Hasan, Mohammad R. Al-Mulla, Jehad Abubaker, Fahd Al-Mulla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Current vaccines, which induce a B-cell-mediated antibody response against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, have markedly reduced infection rates. However, the emergence of new variants as a result of SARS-CoV-2 evolution requires the development of novel vaccines that are T-cell-based and that target mutant-specific spike proteins along with ORF1ab or nucleocapsid protein. This approach is more accommodative in inducing highly neutralizing antibodies, without the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement, as well as memory CD8+T-cell immunity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalHuman Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
Early online date20 Sep 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Sep 2021


  • antibodies
  • antibody-dependent enhancement
  • COVID-19
  • neutralization
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • spike protein
  • vaccine


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