Consanguineous populations of the Arabian Peninsula, which has seen an uncontrolled rise in type 2 diabetes incidence, are underrepresented in global studies on diabetes genetics. We performed a genome-wide association study on the quantitative trait of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in unrelated Arab individuals from Kuwait (discovery-cohort:n = 1,353; replication-cohort:n = 1,196). Genome-wide genotyping in discovery phase was performed for 632,375 markers from Illumina HumanOmniExpress Beadchip; and top-associating markers were replicated using candidate genotyping. Genetic models based on additive and recessive transmission modes were used in statistical tests for associations in discovery phase, replication phase, and meta-analysis that combines data from both the phases. A genome-wide significant association with high FPG was found at rs1002487 (RPS6KA1) (p-discovery = 1.64E-08, p-replication = 3.71E-04, p-combined = 5.72E-11; β-discovery = 8.315; β-replication = 3.442; β-combined = 6.551). Further, three suggestive associations (p-values < 8.2E-06) with high FPG were observed at rs487321 (CADPS), rs707927 (VARS and 2Kb upstream of VWA7), and rs12600570 (DHX58); the first two markers reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis (p-combined = 1.83E-12 and 3.07E-09, respectively). Significant interactions of diabetes traits (serum triglycerides, FPG, and glycated hemoglobin) with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were identified for genotypes heterozygous or homozygous for the risk allele. Literature reports support the involvement of these gene loci in type 2 diabetes etiology.