Height and body-mass index trajectories of school-aged children and adolescents from 1985 to 2019 in 200 countries and territories: a pooled analysis of 2181 population-based studies with 65 million participants

Andrea Rodriguez-Martinez, Bin Zhou, Marisa K. Sophiea, James Bentham, Christopher J. Paciorek, Maria LC Iurilli, Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco, James E. Bennett, Mariachiara Di Cesare, Cristina Taddei, Honor Bixby, Gretchen A. Stevens, Leanne M. Riley, Melanie J. Cowan, Stefan Savin, Goodarz Danaei, Adela Chirita-Emandi, Andre P. Kengne, Young Ho Khang, Avula LaxmaiahReza Malekzadeh, J. Jaime Miranda, Jin Soo Moon, Stevo R. Popovic, Thorkild IA Sørensen, Maroje Soric, Gregor Starc, Ahmad A. Zainuddin, Edward W. Gregg, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Robert Black, Leandra Abarca-Gómez, Ziad A. Abdeen, Shynar Abdrakhmanova, Suhaila Abdul Ghaffar, Hanan F. Abdul Rahim, Niveen M. Abu-Rmeileh, Jamila Abubakar Garba, Benjamin Acosta-Cazares, Robert J. Adams, Wichai Aekplakorn, Kaosar Afsana, Shoaib Afzal, Imelda A. Agdeppa, Javad Aghazadeh-Attari, Carlos A. Aguilar-Salinas, Charles Agyemang, Mohamad Hasnan Ahmad, Noor Ani Ahmad, Ali Ahmadi, Naser Ahmadi, Soheir H. Ahmed, Wolfgang Ahrens, Gulmira Aitmurzaeva, Kamel Ajlouni, Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa, Amani Rashed Al-Othman, Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Monira Alarouj, Fadia AlBuhairan, Shahla AlDhukair, Mohamed M. Ali, Abdullah Alkandari, Ala'a Alkerwi, Kristine Allin, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Eman Aly, Deepak N. Amarapurkar, Parisa Amiri, Norbert Amougou, Philippe Amouyel, Lars Bo Andersen, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Lars Ängquist, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Hajer Aounallah-Skhiri, Joana Araújo, Inger Ariansen, Tahir Aris, Raphael E. Arku, Nimmathota Arlappa, Krishna K. Aryal, Thor Aspelund, Felix K. Assah, Maria Cecília F. Assunção, May Soe Aung, Juha Auvinen, Mária Avdicová, Ana Azevedo, Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad, Fereidoun Azizi, Mehrdad Azmin, Bontha V. Babu, Maja Bæksgaard Jørgensen, Azli Baharudin, Suhad Bahijri, Jennifer L. Baker, Nagalla Balakrishna, Mohamed Bamoshmoosh, Maciej Banach, Piotr Bandosz, José R. Banegas, Joanna Baran, Carlo M. Barbagallo, Alberto Barceló, Amina Barkat, Aluisio JD Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes Barros, Abdul Basit, Joao Luiz D. Bastos, Iqbal Bata, Anwar M. Batieha, Rosangela L. Batista, Zhamilya Battakova, Assembekov Batyrbek, Louise A. Baur, Robert Beaglehole, Silvia Bel-Serrat, Antonisamy Belavendra, Habiba Ben Romdhane, Judith Benedics, Mikhail Benet, Salim Berkinbayev, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, Gailute Bernotiene, Heloísa Bettiol, Jorge Bezerra, Aroor Bhagyalaxmi, Sumit Bharadwaj, Santosh K. Bhargava, Hongsheng Bi, Yufang Bi, Daniel Bia, Elysée Claude Bika Lele, Mukharram M. Bikbov, Bihungum Bista, Dusko J. Bjelica, Peter Bjerregaard, Espen Bjertness, Marius B. Bjertness, Cecilia Björkelund, Katia V. Bloch, Anneke Blokstra, Simona Bo, Martin Bobak, Lynne M. Boddy, Bernhard O. Boehm, Heiner Boeing, Jose G. Boggia, Elena Bogova, Carlos P. Boissonnet, Stig E. Bojesen, Marialaura Bonaccio, Vanina Bongard, Alice Bonilla-Vargas, Matthias Bopp, Herman Borghs, Pascal Bovet, Lien Braeckevelt, Lutgart Braeckman, Marjolijn CE Bragt, Imperia Brajkovich, Francesco Branca, Juergen Breckenkamp, João Breda, Hermann Brenner, Lizzy M. Brewster, Garry R. Brian, Lacramioara Brinduse, Sinead Brophy, Graziella Bruno, H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Anna Bugge, Marta Buoncristiano, Genc Burazeri, Con Burns, Antonio Cabrera de León, Joseph Cacciottolo, Hui Cai, Tilema Cama, Christine Cameron, José Camolas, Günay Can, Ana Paula C. Cândido, Felicia Cañete, Mario V. Capanzana, Nadežda Capková, Eduardo Capuano, Vincenzo Capuano, Marloes Cardol, Viviane C. Cardoso, Axel C. Carlsson, Esteban Carmuega, Joana Carvalho, José A. Casajús, Felipe F. Casanueva, Ertugrul Celikcan, Laura Censi, Marvin Cervantes-Loaiza, Juraci A. Cesar, Snehalatha Chamukuttan, Angelique W. Chan, Queenie Chan, Himanshu K. Chaturvedi, Nish Chaturvedi, Norsyamlina Che Abdul Rahim, Chien Jen Chen, Fangfang Chen, Huashuai Chen, Shuohua Chen, Zhengming Chen, Ching Yu Cheng, Bahman Cheraghian, Angela Chetrit, Ekaterina Chikova-Iscener, Arnaud Chiolero, Shu Ti Chiou, María Dolores Chirlaque, Belong Cho, Kaare Christensen, Diego G. Christofaro, Jerzy Chudek, Renata Cifkova, Michelle Cilia, Eliza Cinteza, Frank Claessens, Janine Clarke, Els Clays, Emmanuel Cohen, Hans Concin, Susana C. Confortin, Cyrus Cooper, Tara C. Coppinger, Eva Corpeleijn, Simona Costanzo, Dominique Cottel, Chris Cowell, Cora L. Craig, Amelia C. Crampin, Ana B. Crujeiras, Semánová Csilla, Alexandra M. Cucu, Liufu Cui, Felipe V. Cureau, Graziella D'Arrigo, Eleonora d'Orsi, Liliana Dacica, María Ángeles Dal Re Saavedra, Jean Dallongeville, Albertino Damasceno, Camilla T. Damsgaard, Rachel Dankner, Thomas M. Dantoft, Parasmani Dasgupta, Saeed Dastgiri, Luc Dauchet, Kairat Davletov, Guy De Backer, Dirk De Bacquer, Giovanni de Gaetano, Stefaan De Henauw, Paula Duarte de Oliveira, David De Ridder, Karin De Ridder, Susanne R. de Rooij, Delphine De Smedt, Mohan Deepa, Alexander D. Deev, Vincent DeGennaro, Abbas Dehghan, Hélène Delisle, Francis Delpeuch, Stefaan Demarest, Elaine Dennison, Katarzyna Deren, Valérie Deschamps, Klodian Dhana, Meghnath Dhimal, Augusto F. Di Castelnuovo, Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa, María Elena Díaz-Sánchez, Alejandro Diaz, Zivka Dika, Shirin Djalalinia, Visnja Djordjic, Ha TP Do, Annette J. Dobson, Maria Benedetta Donati, Chiara Donfrancesco, Silvana P. Donoso, Angela Döring, Maria Dorobantu, Ahmad Reza Dorosty, Kouamelan Doua, Wojciech Drygas, Jia Li Duan, Charmaine A. Duante, Priscilla Duboz, Rosemary B. Duda, Vesselka Duleva, Virginija Dulskiene, Samuel C. Dumith, Anar Dushpanova, Vilnis Dzerve, Elzbieta Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Ricky Eddie, Ebrahim Eftekhar, Eruke E. Egbagbe, Robert Eggertsen, Sareh Eghtesad, Gabriele Eiben, Ulf Ekelund, Mohammad El-Khateeb, Jalila El Ati, Denise Eldemire-Shearer, Marie Eliasen, Paul Elliott, Reina Engle-Stone, Macia Enguerran, Rajiv T. Erasmus, Raimund Erbel, Cihangir Erem, Louise Eriksen, Johan G. Eriksson, Jorge Escobedo-de la Peña, Saeid Eslami, Ali Esmaeili, Alun Evans, David Faeh, Albina A. Fakhretdinova, Caroline H. Fall, Elnaz Faramarzi, Mojtaba Farjam, Victoria Farrugia Sant'Angelo, Farshad Farzadfar, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Asher Fawwad, Francisco J. Felix-Redondo, Trevor S. Ferguson, Romulo A. Fernandes, Daniel Fernández-Bergés, Daniel Ferrante, Thomas Ferrao, Marika Ferrari, Marco M. Ferrario, Catterina Ferreccio, Eldridge Ferrer, Jean Ferrieres, Thamara Hubler Figueiró, Anna Fijalkowska, Günther Fink, Krista Fischer, Bernhard Föger, Leng Huat Foo, Maria Forsner, Heba M. Fouad, Damian K. Francis, Maria do Carmo Franco, Oscar H. Franco, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Guillermo Frontera, Flavio D. Fuchs, Sandra C. Fuchs, Isti I. Fujiati, Yuki Fujita, Matsuda Fumihiko, Takuro Furusawa, Zbigniew Gaciong, Mihai Gafencu, Andrzej Galbarczyk, Henrike Galenkamp, Daniela Galeone, Myriam Galfo, Fabio Galvano, Jingli Gao, Manoli Garcia-de-la-Hera, Marta García-Solano, Dickman Gareta, Sarah P. Garnett, Jean Michel Gaspoz, Magda Gasull, Adroaldo Cesar Araujo Gaya, Anelise Reis Gaya, Andrea Gazzinelli, Ulrike Gehring, Harald Geiger, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Ali Ghanbari, Erfan Ghasemi, Oana Florentina Gheorghe-Fronea, Simona Giampaoli, Francesco Gianfagna, Tiffany K. Gill, Jonathan Giovannelli, Glen Gironella, Aleksander Giwercman, Konstantinos Gkiouras, Justyna Godos, Sibel Gogen, Rebecca A. Goldsmith, David Goltzman, Santiago F. Gómez, Aleksandra Gomula, Bruna Goncalves Cordeiro da Silva, Helen Gonçalves, David A. Gonzalez-Chica, Marcela Gonzalez-Gross, Margot González-Leon, Juan P. González-Rivas, Clicerio González-Villalpando, María Elena González-Villalpando, Angel R. Gonzalez, Frederic Gottrand, Antonio Pedro Graça, Sidsel Graff-Iversen, Dušan Grafnetter, Aneta Grajda, Maria G. Grammatikopoulou, Ronald D. Gregor, Tomasz Grodzicki, Else Karin Grøholt, Anders Grøntved, Giuseppe Grosso, Gabriella Gruden, Dongfeng Gu, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo, Pilar Guallar-Castillón, Andrea Gualtieri, Elias F. Gudmundsson, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ramiro Guerrero, Idris Guessous, Andre L. Guimaraes, Martin C. Gulliford, Johanna Gunnlaugsdottir, Marc J. Gunter, Xiu Hua Guo, Yin Guo, Prakash C. Gupta, Rajeev Gupta, Oye Gureje, Beata Gurzkowska, Enrique Gutiérrez-González, Laura Gutierrez, Felix Gutzwiller, Seongjun Ha, Farzad Hadaegh, Charalambos A. Hadjigeorgiou, Rosa Haghshenas, Hamid Hakimi, Jytte Halkjær, Ian R. Hambleton, Behrooz Hamzeh, Dominique Hange, Abu AM Hanif, Sari Hantunen, Rachakulla Hari Kumar, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi-Shahri, Maria Hassapidou, Jun Hata, Teresa Haugsgjerd, Alison J. Hayes, Jiang He, Yuan He, Yuna He, Regina Heidinger-Felso, Mirjam Heinen, Tatjana Hejgaard, Marleen Elisabeth Hendriks, Rafael dos Santos Henrique, Ana Henriques, Leticia Hernandez Cadena, Sauli Herrala, Victor M. Herrera, Isabelle Herter-Aeberli, Ramin Heshmat, Allan G. Hill, Sai Yin Ho, Suzanne C. Ho, Michael Hobbs, Albert Hofman, Ingunn Holden Bergh, Michelle Holdsworth, Reza Homayounfar, Clara Homs, Wilma M. Hopman, Andrea RVR Horimoto, Claudia M. Hormiga, Bernardo L. Horta, Leila Houti, Christina Howitt, Thein Thein Htay, Aung Soe Htet, Maung Maung Than Htike, Yonghua Hu, José María Huerta, Ilpo Tapani Huhtaniemi, Constanta Huidumac Petrescu, Abdullatif Husseini, Chinh Nguyen Huu, Inge Huybrechts, Nahla Hwalla, Jolanda Hyska, Licia Iacoviello, Jesús M. Ibarluzea, Mohsen M. Ibrahim, Norazizah Ibrahim Wong, Nayu Ikeda, M. Arfan Ikram, Violeta Iotova, Vilma E. Irazola, Takafumi Ishida, Muhammad Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Masanori Iwasaki, Rod T. Jackson, Jeremy M. Jacobs, Hashem Y. Jaddou, Tazeen Jafar, Kenneth James, Kazi M. Jamil, Konrad Jamrozik, Imre Janszky, Edward Janus, Juel Jarani, Marjo Riitta Jarvelin, Grazyna Jasienska, Ana Jelakovic, Bojan Jelakovic, Garry Jennings, Anjani Kumar Jha, Chao Qiang Jiang, Ramon O. Jimenez, Karl Heinz Jöckel, Michel Joffres, Mattias Johansson, Jari J. Jokelainen, Jost B. Jonas, Torben Jørgensen, Pradeep Joshi, Farahnaz Joukar, Dragana P. Jovic, Jacek J. Józwiak, Anne Juolevi, Gregor Jurak, Iulia Jurca Simina, Vesna Juresa, Rudolf Kaaks, Felix O. Kaducu, Anthony Kafatos, Eero O. Kajantie, Zhanna Kalmatayeva, Ofra Kalter-Leibovici, Yves Kameli, Kodanda R. Kanala, Srinivasan Kannan, Efthymios Kapantais, Khem B. Karki, Marzieh Katibeh, Joanne Katz, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Jussi Kauhanen, Prabhdeep Kaur, Maryam Kavousi, Gyulli M. Kazakbaeva, Ulrich Keil, Lital Keinan Boker, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Roya Kelishadi, Cecily Kelleher, Han CG Kemper, Maryam Keramati, Alina Kerimkulova, Mathilde Kersting, Timothy Key, Yousef Saleh Khader, Davood Khalili, Kay Tee Khaw, Bahareh Kheiri, Motahareh Kheradmand, Alireza Khosravi, Ilse MSL Khouw, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Stefan Kiechl, Japhet Killewo, Dong Wook Kim, Hyeon Chang Kim, Jeongseon Kim, Jenny M. Kindblom, Heidi Klakk, Magdalena Klimek, Jeannette Klimont, Jurate Klumbiene, Michael Knoflach, Bhawesh Koirala, Elin Kolle, Patrick Kolsteren, Jürgen König, Raija Korpelainen, Paul Korrovits, Magdalena Korzycka, Jelena Kos, Seppo Koskinen, Katsuyasu Kouda, Viktoria A. Kovacs, Sudhir Kowlessur, Slawomir Koziel, Wolfgang Kratzer, Susi Kriemler, Peter Lund Kristensen, Steiner Krokstad, Daan Kromhout, Branimir Krtalic, Herculina S. Kruger, Ruzena Kubinova, Renata Kuciene, Urho M. Kujala, Enisa Kujundzic, Zbigniew Kulaga, R. Krishna Kumar, Marie Kunešová, Pawel Kurjata, Yadlapalli S. Kusuma, Kari Kuulasmaa, Catherine Kyobutungi, Quang Ngoc La, Fatima Zahra Laamiri, Tiina Laatikainen, Carl Lachat, Youcef Laid, Tai Hing Lam, Christina Paulina Lambrinou, Edwige Landais, Vera Lanska, Georg Lappas, Bagher Larijani, Tint Swe Latt, Laura Lauria, Maria Lazo-Porras, Khanh Le Nguyen Bao, Agnès Le Port, Tuyen D. Le, Jeannette Lee, Jeonghee Lee, Paul H. Lee, Nils Lehmann, Terho Lehtimäki, Daniel Lemogoum, Naomi S. Levitt, Yanping Li, Merike Liivak, Christa L. Lilly, Wei Yen Lim, M. Fernanda Lima-Costa, Hsien Ho Lin, Xu Lin, Yi Ting Lin, Lars Lind, Allan Linneberg, Lauren Lissner, Mieczyslaw Litwin, Jing Liu, Lijuan Liu, Wei Cheng Lo, Helle Mai Loit, Khuong Quynh Long, Luis Lopes, Oscar Lopes, Esther Lopez-Garcia, Tania Lopez, Paulo A. Lotufo, José Eugenio Lozano, Janice L. Lukrafka, Dalia Luksiene, Annamari Lundqvist, Robert Lundqvist, Nuno Lunet, Charles Lunogelo, Michala Lustigová, Edyta Luszczki, Guansheng Ma, Jun Ma, Xu Ma, George LL Machado-Coelho, Aristides M. Machado-Rodrigues, Suka Machi, Luisa M. Macieira, Ahmed A. Madar, Stefania Maggi, Dianna J. Magliano, Sara Magnacca, Emmanuella Magriplis, Gowri Mahasampath, Bernard Maire, Marjeta Majer, Marcia Makdisse, Päivi Mäki, Fatemeh Malekzadeh, Rahul Malhotra, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna Rao, Sofia K. Malyutina, Lynell V. Maniego, Yannis Manios, Jim I. Mann, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Enzo Manzato, Paula Margozzini, Anastasia Markaki, Oonagh Markey, Eliza Markidou Ioannidou, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Larissa Pruner Marques, Jaume Marrugat, Yves Martin-Prevel, Rosemarie Martin, Reynaldo Martorell, Eva Martos, Stefano Marventano, Luis P. Mascarenhas, Shariq R. Masoodi, Ellisiv B. Mathiesen, Prashant Mathur, Alicia Matijasevich, Tandi E. Matsha, Christina Mavrogianni, Artur Mazur, Jean Claude N. Mbanya, Shelly R. McFarlane, Stephen T. McGarvey, Martin McKee, Stela McLachlan, Rachael M. McLean, Scott B. McLean, Breige A. McNulty, Sounnia Mediene-Benchekor, Jurate Medzioniene, Parinaz Mehdipour, Kirsten Mehlig, Amir Houshang Mehrparvar, Aline Meirhaeghe, Jørgen Meisfjord, Christa Meisinger, Ana Maria B. Menezes, Geetha R. Menon, Gert BM Mensink, Maria Teresa Menzano, Alibek Mereke, Indrapal I. Meshram, Andres Metspalu, Jie Mi, Kim F. Michaelsen, Nathalie Michels, Kairit Mikkel, Karolina Milkowska, Jody C. Miller, Cláudia S. Minderico, G. K. Mini, Juan Francisco Miquel, Mohammad Reza Mirjalili, Daphne Mirkopoulou, Erkin Mirrakhimov, Marjeta Mišigoj-Durakovic, Antonio Mistretta, Veronica Mocanu, Pietro A. Modesti, Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam, Bahram Mohajer, Mostafa K. Mohamed, Shukri F. Mohamed, Kazem Mohammad, Zahra Mohammadi, Noushin Mohammadifard, Reza Mohammadpourhodki, Viswanathan Mohan, Salim Mohanna, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff, Iraj Mohebbi, Farnam Mohebi, Marie Moitry, Drude Molbo, Line T. Møllehave, Niels C. Møller, Dénes Molnár, Amirabbas Momenan, Charles K. Mondo, Michele Monroy-Valle, Eric Monterrubio-Flores, Kotsedi Daniel K. Monyeki, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Leila B. Moreira, Alain Morejon, Luis A. Moreno, Karen Morgan, Suzanne N. Morin, Erik Lykke Mortensen, George Moschonis, Malgorzata Mossakowska, Aya Mostafa, Anabela Mota-Pinto, Jorge Mota, Mohammad Esmaeel Motlagh, Jorge Motta, Marcos André Moura-dos-Santos, Malay K. Mridha, Kelias P. Msyamboza, Thet Thet Mu, Magdalena Muc, Boban Mugoša, Maria L. Muiesan, Parvina Mukhtorova, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Neil Murphy, Jaakko Mursu, Elaine M. Murtagh, Kamarul Imran Musa, Sanja Music Milanovic, Vera Musil, Norlaila Mustafa, Iraj Nabipour, Shohreh Naderimagham, Gabriele Nagel, Balkish M. Naidu, Farid Najafi, Harunobu Nakamura, Jana Námešná, Ei Ei K. Nang, Vinay B. Nangia, Martin Nankap, Sameer Narake, Paola Nardone, Matthias Nauck, William A. Neal, Azim Nejatizadeh, Keiu Nelis, Liis Nelis, Ilona Nenko, Martin Neovius, Flavio Nervi, Chung T. Nguyen, D. Nguyen, Quang Ngoc Nguyen, Ramfis E. Nieto-Martínez, Yury P. Nikitin, Guang Ning, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Sania Nishtar, Marianna Noale, Oscar A. Noboa, Helena Nogueira, Teresa Norat, Maria Nordendahl, Børge G. Nordestgaard, Davide Noto, Natalia Nowak-Szczepanska, Mohannad Al Nsour, Irfan Nuhoglu, Eha Nurk, Terence W. O'Neill, Dermot O'Reilly, Galina Obreja, Caleb Ochimana, Angélica M. Ochoa-Avilés, Eiji Oda, Kyungwon Oh, Kumiko Ohara, Claes Ohlsson, Ryutaro Ohtsuka, Örn Olafsson, Maria Teresa A. Olinto, Isabel O. Oliveira, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Altan Onat, Sok King Ong, Lariane M. Ono, Pedro Ordunez, Rui Ornelas, Ana P. Ortiz, Pedro J. Ortiz, Merete Osler, Clive Osmond, Sergej M. Ostojic, Afshin Ostovar, Johanna A. Otero, Kim Overvad, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Fred Michel Paccaud, Cristina Padez, Ioannis Pagkalos, Elena Pahomova, Karina Mary de Paiva, Andrzej Pajak, Domenico Palli, Alberto Palloni, Luigi Palmieri, Wen Harn Pan, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Arvind Pandey, Francesco Panza, Dimitrios Papandreou, Soon Woo Park, Suyeon Park, Winsome R. Parnell, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, Ionela M. Pascanu, Patrick Pasquet, Nikhil D. Patel, Mangesh S. Pednekar, Nasheeta Peer, Sergio Viana Peixoto, Markku Peltonen, Alexandre C. Pereira, Marco A. Peres, Napoleón Pérez-Farinós, Cynthia M. Pérez, Valentina Peterkova, Annette Peters, Astrid Petersmann, Janina Petkeviciene, Ausra Petrauskiene, Emanuela Pettenuzzo, Niloofar Peykari, Son Thai Pham, Rafael N. Pichardo, Daniela Pierannunzio, Iris Pigeot, Hynek Pikhart, Aida Pilav, Lorenza Pilotto, Francesco Pistelli, Freda Pitakaka, Aleksandra Piwonska, Andreia N. Pizarro, Pedro Plans-Rubió, Bee Koon Poh, Hermann Pohlabeln, Raluca M. Pop, Miquel Porta, Georg Posch, Anil Poudyal, Dimitrios Poulimeneas, Hamed Pouraram, Farhad Pourfarzi, Akram Pourshams, Hossein Poustchi, Rajendra Pradeepa, Alison J. Price, Jacqueline F. Price, Rui Providencia, Jardena J. Puder, Iveta Pudule, Soile E. Puhakka, Maria Puiu, Margus Punab, Radwan F. Qasrawi, Mostafa Qorbani, Tran Quoc Bao, Ivana Radic, Ricardas Radisauskas, Salar Rahimikazerooni, Mahfuzar Rahman, Mahmudur Rahman, Olli Raitakari, Manu Raj, Ellina Rakhimova, Sherali Rakhmatulloev, Ivo Rakovac, Sudha Ramachandra Rao, Ambady Ramachandran, Jacqueline Ramke, Elisabete Ramos, Rafel Ramos, Lekhraj Rampal, Sanjay Rampal, Vayia Rarra, Ramon A. Rascon-Pacheco, Mette Rasmussen, Cassiano Ricardo Rech, Josep Redon, Paul Ferdinand M. Reganit, Valéria Regecová, Luis Revilla, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Lourdes Ribas-Barba, Robespierre Ribeiro, Elio Riboli, Adrian Richter, Fernando Rigo, Natascia Rinaldo, Tobias F. Rinke de Wit, Ana Rito, Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, Juan A. Rivera, Cynthia Robitaille, Romana Roccaldo, Daniela Rodrigues, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, María del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, Laura A. Rodríguez-Villamizar, Ulla Roggenbuck, Rosalba Rojas-Martinez, Nipa Rojroongwasinkul, Dora Romaguera, Elisabetta L. Romeo, Rafaela V. Rosario, Annika Rosengren, Ian Rouse, Joel GR Roy, Adolfo Rubinstein, Frank J. Rühli, Jean Bernard Ruidavets, Blanca Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Emma Ruiz Moreno, Iuliia A. Rusakova, Kenisha Russell Jonsson, Paola Russo, Petra Rust, Marcin Rutkowski, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Elena Sacchini, Harshpal S. Sachdev, Alireza Sadjadi, Ali Reza Safarpour, Sare Safi, Saeid Safiri, Olfa Saidi, Nader Saki, Benoit Salanave, Eduardo Salazar Martinez, Diego Salmerón, Veikko Salomaa, Jukka T. Salonen, Massimo Salvetti, Margarita Samoutian, Jose Sánchez-Abanto, Sandjaja, Susana Sans, Loreto Santa Marina, Diana A. Santos, Ina S. Santos, Lèlita C. Santos, Maria Paula Santos, Osvaldo Santos, Rute Santos, Sara Santos Sanz, Jouko L. Saramies, Luis B. Sardinha, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Kai Uwe Saum, Savvas Savva, Mathilde Savy, Norie Sawada, Mariana Sbaraini, Marcia Scazufca, Beatriz D. Schaan, Angelika Schaffrath Rosario, Herman Schargrodsky, Anja Schienkiewitz, Karin Schindler, Sabine Schipf, Carsten O. Schmidt, Ida Maria Schmidt, Peter Schnohr, Ben Schöttker, Sara Schramm, Stine Schramm, Helmut Schröder, Constance Schultsz, Aletta E. Schutte, Sylvain Sebert, Aye Aye Sein, Rusidah Selamat, Vedrana Sember, Abhijit Sen, Idowu O. Senbanjo, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Victor Sequera, Luis Serra-Majem, Jennifer Servais, Ludmila Ševcíková, Svetlana A. Shalnova, Teresa Shamah-Levy, Morteza Shamshirgaran, Coimbatore Subramaniam Shanthirani, Maryam Sharafkhah, Sanjib K. Sharma, Jonathan E. Shaw, Amaneh Shayanrad, Ali Akbar Shayesteh, Lela Shengelia, Zumin Shi, Kenji Shibuya, Hana Shimizu-Furusawa, Dong Wook Shin, Youchan Shin, Majid Shirani, Rahman Shiri, Namuna Shrestha, Khairil Si-Ramlee, Alfonso Siani, Rosalynn Siantar, Abla M. Sibai, Antonio M. Silva, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Mary Simon, Judith Simons, Leon A. Simons, Agneta Sjöberg, Michael Sjöström, Gry Skodje, Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer, Przemyslaw Slusarczyk, Liam Smeeth, Hung Kwan So, Fernanda Cunha Soares, Grzegorz Sobek, Eugène Sobngwi, Morten Sodemann, Stefan Söderberg, Moesijanti YE Soekatri, Agustinus Soemantri, Reecha Sofat, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Emily Sonestedt, Yi Song, Elin P. Sørgjerd, Charles Sossa Jérome, Victoria E. Soto-Rojas, Aïcha Soumaré, Slavica Sovic, Bente Sparboe-Nilsen, Karen Sparrenberger, Angela Spinelli, Igor Spiroski, Jan A. Staessen, Hanspeter Stamm, Maria G. Stathopoulou, Kaspar Staub, Bill Stavreski, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Peter Stehle, Aryeh D. Stein, George S. Stergiou, Jochanan Stessman, Ranko Stevanovic, Jutta Stieber, Doris Stöckl, Tanja Stocks, Jakub Stokwiszewski, Ekaterina Stoyanova, Gareth Stratton, Karien Stronks, Maria Wany Strufaldi, Lela Sturua, Ramón Suárez-Medina, Machi Suka, Chien An Sun, Johan Sundström, Yn Tz Sung, Jordi Sunyer, Paibul Suriyawongpaisal, Boyd A. Swinburn, Rody G. Sy, Holly E. Syddall, René Charles Sylva, Moyses Szklo, Lucjan Szponar, E. Shyong Tai, Mari Liis Tammesoo, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Eng Joo Tan, Xun Tang, Frank Tanser, Yong Tao, Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh, Jakob Tarp, Carolina B. Tarqui-Mamani, Radka Taxová Braunerová, Anne Taylor, Julie Taylor, Félicité Tchibindat, William R. Tebar, Grethe S. Tell, Tania Tello, K. R. Thankappan, Holger Theobald, Xenophon Theodoridis, Lutgarde Thijs, Nihal Thomas, Betina H. Thuesen, Lubica Tichá, Erik J. Timmermans, Anne Tjonneland, Hanna K. Tolonen, Janne S. Tolstrup, Murat Topbas, Roman Topór-Madry, Liv Elin Torheim, María José Tormo, Michael J. Tornaritis, Maties Torrent, Laura Torres-Collado, Stefania Toselli, Pierre Traissac, Thi Tuyet Hanh Tran, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Antonia Trichopoulou, Oanh TH Trinh, Atul Trivedi, Lechaba Tshepo, Maria Tsigga, Shoichiro Tsugane, Azaliia M. Tuliakova, Marshall K. Tulloch-Reid, Fikru Tullu, Tomi Pekka Tuomainen, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Maria L. Turley, Per Tynelius, Themistoklis Tzotzas, Christophe Tzourio, Peter Ueda, Eunice Ugel, Flora AM Ukoli, Hanno Ulmer, Belgin Unal, Zhamyila Usupova, Hannu MT Uusitalo, Nalan Uysal, Justina Vaitkeviciute, Gonzalo Valdivia, Susana Vale, Damaskini Valvi, Rob M. van Dam, Johan Van der Heyden, Yvonne T. van der Schouw, Koen Van Herck, Hoang Van Minh, Irene GM van Valkengoed, Dirk Vanderschueren, Diego Vanuzzo, Anette Varbo, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras, Patricia Varona-Pérez, Senthil K. Vasan, Tomas Vega, Toomas Veidebaum, Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez, Biruta Velika, Giovanni Veronesi, WM Monique Verschuren, Cesar G. Victora, Giovanni Viegi, Lucie Viet, Salvador Villalpando, Paolo Vineis, Jesus Vioque, Jyrki K. Virtanen, Marjolein Visser, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Bharathi Viswanathan, Mihaela Vladulescu, Tiina Vlasoff, Dorja Vocanec, Henry Völzke, Ari Voutilainen, Sari Voutilainen, Martine Vrijheid, Tanja GM Vrijkotte, Alisha N. Wade, Aline Wagner, Thomas Waldhör, Janette Walton, Elvis OA Wambiya, Wan Mohamad Wan Bebakar, Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud, Rildo de Souza Wanderley Júnior, Ming Dong Wang, Ningli Wang, Qian Wang, Xiangjun Wang, Ya Xing Wang, Ying Wei Wang, S. Goya Wannamethee, Nicholas Wareham, Adelheid Weber, Niels Wedderkopp, Deepa Weerasekera, Daniel Weghuber, Wenbin Wei, Aneta Weres, Bo Werner, Peter H. Whincup, Kurt Widhalm, Indah S. Widyahening, Andrzej Wiecek, Rainford J. Wilks, Johann Willeit, Peter Willeit, Julianne Williams, Tom Wilsgaard, Bogdan Wojtyniak, Roy A. Wong-McClure, Andrew Wong, Jyh Eiin Wong, Tien Yin Wong, Jean Woo, Mark Woodward, Frederick C. Wu, Jianfeng Wu, Li Juan Wu, Shouling Wu, Haiquan Xu, Liang Xu, Nor Azwany Yaacob, Uruwan Yamborisut, Weili Yan, Ling Yang, Xiaoguang Yang, Yang Yang, Nazan Yardim, Mehdi Yaseri, Tabara Yasuharu, Xingwang Ye, Panayiotis K. Yiallouros, Moein Yoosefi, Akihiro Yoshihara, Qi Sheng You, San Lin You, Novie O. Younger-Coleman, Safiah Md Yusof, Ahmad Faudzi Yusoff, Luciana Zaccagni, Vassilis Zafiropulos, Seyed Rasoul Zakavi, Farhad Zamani, Sabina Zambon, Antonis Zampelas, Hana Zamrazilová, Maria Elisa Zapata, Abdul Hamid Zargar, Ko Ko Zaw, Tomasz Zdrojewski, Tajana Zeljkovic Vrkic, Yi Zeng, Luxia Zhang, Zhen Yu Zhang, Dong Zhao, Ming Hui Zhao, Wenhua Zhao, Shiqi Zhen, Wei Zheng, Yingfeng Zheng, Bekbolat Zholdin, Maigeng Zhou, Dan Zhu, Yanina Zocalo, Julio Zuñiga Cisneros, Monika Zuziak, Majid Ezzati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Comparable global data on health and nutrition of school-aged children and adolescents are scarce. We aimed to estimate age trajectories and time trends in mean height and mean body-mass index (BMI), which measures weight gain beyond what is expected from height gain, for school-aged children and adolescents. Methods: For this pooled analysis, we used a database of cardiometabolic risk factors collated by the Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Collaboration. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1985 to 2019 in mean height and mean BMI in 1-year age groups for ages 5–19 years. The model allowed for non-linear changes over time in mean height and mean BMI and for non-linear changes with age of children and adolescents, including periods of rapid growth during adolescence. Findings: We pooled data from 2181 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in 65 million participants in 200 countries and territories. In 2019, we estimated a difference of 20 cm or higher in mean height of 19-year-old adolescents between countries with the tallest populations (the Netherlands, Montenegro, Estonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina for boys; and the Netherlands, Montenegro, Denmark, and Iceland for girls) and those with the shortest populations (Timor-Leste, Laos, Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea for boys; and Guatemala, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Timor-Leste for girls). In the same year, the difference between the highest mean BMI (in Pacific island countries, Kuwait, Bahrain, The Bahamas, Chile, the USA, and New Zealand for both boys and girls and in South Africa for girls) and lowest mean BMI (in India, Bangladesh, Timor-Leste, Ethiopia, and Chad for boys and girls; and in Japan and Romania for girls) was approximately 9–10 kg/m2. In some countries, children aged 5 years started with healthier height or BMI than the global median and, in some cases, as healthy as the best performing countries, but they became progressively less healthy compared with their comparators as they grew older by not growing as tall (eg, boys in Austria and Barbados, and girls in Belgium and Puerto Rico) or gaining too much weight for their height (eg, girls and boys in Kuwait, Bahrain, Fiji, Jamaica, and Mexico; and girls in South Africa and New Zealand). In other countries, growing children overtook the height of their comparators (eg, Latvia, Czech Republic, Morocco, and Iran) or curbed their weight gain (eg, Italy, France, and Croatia) in late childhood and adolescence. When changes in both height and BMI were considered, girls in South Korea, Vietnam, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and some central Asian countries (eg, Armenia and Azerbaijan), and boys in central and western Europe (eg, Portugal, Denmark, Poland, and Montenegro) had the healthiest changes in anthropometric status over the past 3·5 decades because, compared with children and adolescents in other countries, they had a much larger gain in height than they did in BMI. The unhealthiest changes—gaining too little height, too much weight for their height compared with children in other countries, or both—occurred in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, New Zealand, and the USA for boys and girls; in Malaysia and some Pacific island nations for boys; and in Mexico for girls. Interpretation: The height and BMI trajectories over age and time of school-aged children and adolescents are highly variable across countries, which indicates heterogeneous nutritional quality and lifelong health advantages and risks. Funding: Wellcome Trust, AstraZeneca Young Health Programme, EU.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1511-1524
Number of pages14
JournalThe Lancet
Volume396
Issue number10261
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Nov 2020

Cite this