Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and Islet Autoantibodies Are Tools to Characterize Type 1 Diabetes in Arab Countries: Emphasis on Kuwait

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Abstract

The incidence rate of type 1 diabetes in Kuwait had been increasing exponentially and has doubled in children≤14 years old within almost two decades. Therefore, there is a dire need for a careful systematic familial cohort study. Several immunogenetic factors affect the pathogenesis of the disease. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) accounts for the major genetic susceptibility to the disease. The triggering agents initiate disease onset by type 1 destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Both HLA and anti-islet antibodies can be used to characterize, predict susceptibility to the disease, innovate, or delay the β-cell destruction. Evidence from prospective longitudinal studies suggested that the underlying disease process represents a continuum that begins before the symptoms are clinically evident. Autoimmunity of the functional pancreatic β-cells results in symptomatic type 1 diabetes and lifelong insulin dependence. The autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2A), insulin (IAA), and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT-8A) comprise the most reliable biomarkers for type 1 diabetes in both children and adults. Although Kuwait is the second among the top 10 countries with a high incidence rate of type 1 diabetes, there have been no proper diagnostic and prediction tools as per the World Health Organization. The Kuwaiti Type 1 Diabetes Study (KADS) was initiated to understand the disease pathogenesis as well as the HLA and anti-islet autoantibody profile of type 1 diabetes in Kuwait. Understanding the disease sequela in a homogenous gene pool and highly consanguineous population of Kuwaitis could help solve the challenges and pathogenesis, as well as hasten the prevention, of type 1 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9786078
JournalDisease Markers
Volume2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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