Hydrogen sulfide donor NaHS improves metabolism and reduces muscle atrophy in type 2 diabetes: Implication for understanding sarcopenic pathophysiology

Milad Sami Bitar, Joelle Nader, Waleed Al-Ali, Ashraf Al Madhoun, Hossein Arefanian, Fahd Al-Mulla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sarcopenia, a loss of muscle mass and functionality, constitutes a major contributor to disability in diabetes. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) dynamics and muscle mass regulatory signaling were studied in GK rats, a model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). GK rats exhibited a number of features that are consistent with sarcopenia and T2D including loss of muscle mass and strength, in addition to glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired β-cell responsiveness to glucose. Mechanistically, activation levels of Akt, a key modulator of protein balance, were decreased in T2D. Consequently, we confirmed reduced activity of mTOR signaling components and higher expression of atrophy-related markers typified by FoxO1/atrogin-1/MuRF1 and myostatin-Smad2/3 signaling during the course of diabetes. We observed in GK rat reduced antioxidant capacity (↓GSH/GSSG) and increased expression and activity of NADPH oxidase in connection with augmented rate of oxidation of lipids, proteins, and DNA. H 2 S bioavailability and the expression of key enzymes involved in its synthesis were suppressed as a function of diabetes. Interestingly, GK rats receiving NaHS displayed increased muscle Akt/mTOR signaling and decreased expression of myostatin and the FoxO1/MuRF1/atrogin-dependent pathway. Moreover, diabetes-induced heightened state of oxidative stress was also ameliorated in response to NaHS therapy. Overall, the current data support the notion that a relationship exists between sarcopenia, heightened state of oxidative stress, and H 2 S deficiency at least in the context of diabetes. Moreover, treatment with a potent H 2 S donor at an early stage of diabetes is likely to mitigate the development of sarcopenia/frailty and predictably reduces its devastating sequelae of amputation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6825452
JournalOxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

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