The present study aims to identify predictors for response to combination therapy with pioglitazone plus exenatide vs basal/bolus insulin therapy in T2DM patients who are poorly controlled with maximum/near-maximum doses of metformin plus a sulfonylurea. Participants in the Qatar study received a 75-g OGTT with measurement of plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentration at baseline and were then randomized to receive either treatment with pioglitazone plus exenatide or basal/bolus insulin therapy for one year. Insulin secretion measured with plasma C-peptide concentration during the OGTT was the strongest predictor of response to combination therapy (HbA1c ≤ 7.0%) with pioglitazone plus exenatide. A 54% increase in 2-hour plasma C-peptide concentration above the fasting level identified subjects who achieved the glycaemic goal (HbA1c < 7.0%) with 82% sensitivity and 79% specificity. Only baseline HbA1c was a predictor of response to basal/bolus insulin therapy. Thus, the increment in 2-hour plasma C-peptide concentration above the fasting level provides a useful tool to identify poorly controlled T2DM patients who can achieve glycaemic control without insulin therapy, and thereby, can be used to individualize antihyperglycaemic therapy in poorly controlled T2DM patients.
- insulin secretion
- Qatar study