Prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes among kuwaiti adults: A cross-sectional study

Anwar Mohammad, Ali H. Ziyab, Talal Mohammad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (PG) during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among a sample of Kuwaiti adults. In addition, associations of prediabetes and undiagnosed T2DM with sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. Methods: A cross-sectional study enrolled 1238 subjects aged 18–65 years who reported no prior history of DM. After overnight fasting, FPG and HbA1c were measured in the total study sample, and 2-h PG during a 75-g OGTT was measured in a subsample of 155 subjects. Prediabetes and undiagnosed T2DM were defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Associations were assessed using Poisson regression with robust var-iance estimation, and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Results: We enrolled a total of 618 males and 620 females, with an average age of 43.0 years. The prevalence of prediabetes was estimated to be 47.9% (588/1228) by FPG, 36.8% (57/155) by 2-h PG OGTT, and 31.0% (355/1144) by HbA1c. The prevalence of undiag-nosed T2DM was 6.9% (85/1228) by FPG, 11.0% (17/155) by 2-h PG OGTT, and 4.9% (56/ 1144) by HbA1c. Sex-related differences in the prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed T2DM were observed. Prediabetes and undiagnosed T2DM prevalence estimates showed increasing trends as age and BMI increased. For instance, obese subjects compared to under/ normal weight subjects had an increased HbA1c-defined prediabetes prevalence (aPR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.21–2.16). Conclusion: Prediabetes and undiagnosed T2DM affect a considerable proportion of Kuwaiti adults, and variations across sex, age, and BMI exist. Hence, early identification and management of affected individuals may help reduce the public health burden.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2167-2176
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Kuwait
  • Prediabetes
  • Prevalence
  • Undiagnosed


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