Prevalence, risk factors, and fetomaternal outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus in Kuwait: A cross-sectional study

Zainab Groof, Ghadeer Garashi, Hamid Husain, Shaikhah Owayed, Shaima AlBader, Hawra'a Mouhsen, Anwar Mohammad, Ali H. Ziyab

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7 Citations (Scopus)


Objective. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a growing global public health problem that can have short- and long-term health consequences for the mother and the child. Despite its criticalness, many countries still do not have the epidemiological data which could guide them in responding to the problem. Due to the lack of knowledge on GDM and the fact that diabetes and obesity are high in Kuwait, this study sought to estimate the prevalence of GDM and determine its risk factors and outcomes. Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 947 mothers living in Kuwait, who had given birth within the previous four years. Participants were recruited from primary health care clinics and public hospitals. GDM status was self-reported by the mother. Associations between exposures and outcomes were evaluated using logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Results. Of the 868 mothers with no prior history of diabetes mellitus, 109 (12.6%, 95% CI: 10.4, 14.8) reported having been given a GDM diagnosis during their last pregnancy. The prevalence of GDM increased with maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index. GDM was positively associated with caesarean section delivery (aOR = 1 76, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.66) and fetal macrosomia (aOR = 2 36, 95% CI: 1.14, 4.89). Conclusion. GDM is prevalent in Kuwait and is associated with poor maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. To date, GDM has received little attention, and there is a need for more research to identify and respond to individual and public health implications of GDM in Kuwait.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9136250
JournalJournal of Diabetes Research
Publication statusPublished - 2019


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