Risk of mortality among inpatients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes: National data from Kuwait

Ebaa Al-Ozairi, Rosemary Brown, Yasmine Hamdan, Lulwa Alabdullah, Nia Voase, Jumana Al Kandari, Dalal Alsaeed, Abdulla Al Ozairi, Amal Hasan, Fahd Al-Mulla, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Stuart R Gray, Jason M R Gill, Carlos A Celis-Morales, Naveed Sattar, Paul Welsh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


INTRODUCTION: To investigate type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for COVID-19 death following hospital admission in Kuwait.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using data from a central hospital that cared for all hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Kuwait. We investigated the association between type 2 diabetes, with COVID-19 mortality using multiply imputed logistic regression and calculated the population attributable fraction.

RESULTS: A total of 5333 patients were admitted with COVID-19, of whom 244 died (4.6%). Diabetes prevalence was 24.8%, but 53.7% of those who died had diabetes. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity and other comorbidities, diabetes was associated with death (OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.23, 2.34]) and admission to the intensive care unit more than 3 days after initial admission (OR 1.78 [95% CI 1.17, 2.70]). Assuming causality, the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes in COVID-19 death was 19.6% (95% CI 10.8, 35.6).

CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetes is a strong risk factor for COVID-19 death in the Middle East. Given the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the Middle East, as well as many Western countries, the public health implications are considerable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e00287
JournalEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Early online date10 Jul 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 10 Jul 2021


  • COVID-19
  • death
  • diabetes


Dive into the research topics of 'Risk of mortality among inpatients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes: National data from Kuwait'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this