Elevated lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for premature atherosclerosis and coronary heart discase, both of which are prevalent among Kuwaitis. Our objective was to measure serum lipids, including Lp(a), in Arab children and compare them with values reported for other ethnic groups. To that end, serum concentrations of Lp(a), total cholesterol [T-CHOL], high density lipoprotein [HDL], low density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglyceride [TG] were assessed in 103 Arab children. The mean and median Lp(a) were 140.4 mg/l and 95 mg/l, respectively. The Lp(a) frequency distribution was skewed to the right with the highest frequencies appearing at low levels. Serum Lp(a) correlated positively with T-CHOL and LDL but did not correlate with age, HDL and TG. Only nine children (8.7%) had serum Lp(a) levels associated with increased cardiovascular risk, namely ≤ 300 mg/l.