The cooperative induction of CCL4 in human monocytic cells by TNF-α and palmitate requires MyD88 and involves MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways

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Abstract

Chronic low-grade inflammation, also known as metabolic inflammation, is a hallmark of obesity and parallels with the presence of elevated circulatory levels of free fatty acids and inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. CCL4/MIP-1ß chemokine plays a key role in the adipose tissue monocyte recruitment. Increased circulatory levels of TNF-α, palmitate and CCL4 are co-expressed in obesity. We asked if the TNF-a/palmitate could interact cooperatively to augment the CCL4 production in human monocytic cells and macrophages. THP-1 cells/primary macrophages were co-treated with TNF-α/palmitate and CCL4 mRNA/protein expression was assessed using qRTPCR/ ELISA. TLR4 siRNA, a TLR4 receptor-blocking antibody, XBlueTM-defMyD cells and pathway inhibitors were used to decipher the signaling mechanisms. We found that TNF-α/palmitate costimulation augmented the CCL4 expression in monocytic cells and macrophages compared to controls (p < 0.05). TLR4 suppression or neutralization abrogated the CCL4 expression in monocytic cells. Notably, CCL4 cooperative induction in monocytic cells was: (1) Markedly less in MyD88- deficient cells, (2) IRF3 independent, (3) clathrin dependent and (4) associated with the signaling mechanism involving ERK1/2, c-Jun, JNK and NF-κB. In conclusion, TNF-a/palmitate costimulation promotes the CCL4 expression in human monocytic cells through the mechanism involving a TLR4-MyD88 axis and MAPK/NF-κB pathways. These findings unravel a novel mechanism of the cooperative induction of CCL4 by TNF-α and palmitate which could be relevant to metabolic inflammation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4658
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume20
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sep 2019

Keywords

  • Ccl4
  • MAPK
  • Mip-1ß
  • MyD88
  • Nf-b
  • Palmitate
  • TLR4
  • TNF-α

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