To assess the relationship between the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration and insulin secretion in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects, 531 nondiabetic subjects with NGT (n = 293) and IGT (n = 238; 310 Japanese and 232 Mexican Americans) received an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with measurement of plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide every 30 min. The insulin secretion rate was determined by plasma C-peptide deconvolution. Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) was measured from plasma insulin and glucose concentrations. The insulin secretion/insulin resistance (IS/IR) or disposition index was calculated as ΔISR/ΔG ÷ IR. As FPG increased in NGT subjects, the IS/IR index declined exponentially over the range of FPG from 70 to 125 mg/dl. The relationship between the IS/IR index and FPG was best fit with the equation: 28.8 exp(-0.036 FPG). For every 28 mg/dl increase in FPG, the IS/IR index declined by 63%. A similar relationship between IS/IR index and FPG was observed in IGT. However, the decay constant was lower than in NGT. The IS/IR index for early-phase insulin secretion (0-30 min) was correlated with the increase in FPG in both NGT and IGT (r = -0.43, P < 0.0001 and r = -0.20, P = 0.001, respectively). However, the correlation between late-phase insulin secretion (60-120 min) and FPG was not significant. In conclusion, small increments in FPG, within the "normal" range, are associated with a marked decline in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and the decrease in insulin secretion with increasing FPG is greater in subjects with NGT than IGT and primarily is due to a decline in early-phase insulin secretion.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Aug 2008|
- β-cell function
- Fasting plasma glucose