Violating the Theory of Single Gene-Single Disorder: Inhibitor Development in Hemophilia

Suad AlFadhli, Rasheeba Nizam

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Hemophilia is clinically and genetically heterogeneous blood disorder with several known gene defects accounting for the diversity of disease phenotype and inhibitor production. Although increasing number of causative mutations have been reported, not much is known regarding the root cause of inhibitor development against infused blood clotting factors, which represents a major challenge in the treatment of disease. The variations in the severity and frequency of bleeding in hemophiliacs with same molecular defect, indicates the role of modifier genes in the pathogenesis of disease. Herein, we aim to review and summarise the literature over the past decade, to gain insight into what is critical for the development of inhibitors in hemophilia. Aside from potential mutations in factor VIII and IX, polymorphisms in various genes such as human leukocyte antigen-I (HLA-I), HLA-II, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4, also tends to contribute to the development of inhibitors. Violating the theory of single gene-single disorder, new research indicates that inhibitor arise from a complex interplay of multiple genetic, immunological and environmental factors. With the revolutionary advances in whole genome sequencing, we propose a detailed genome wide study to identify the spectrum of genetic markers involved in the development of inhibitors for better diagnostics and therapeutics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)162-168
Number of pages7
JournalIndian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2015


  • Hemophilia
  • Inhibitors
  • Mutations
  • Polymorphisms


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