Objectives: Both clinical and subclinical vitamin A deficiency has substantial impact on the mortality and morbidity of infectious diseases among children. We prospectively studied the serum retinol level in 200 neonates and their mothers at the Al-Adan Hospital in Kuwait. Methods: Five millilitres each of cord blood and maternal venous blood were collected at the time of delivery. Serum was separated and transported under specified conditions to the laboratory. Serum retinol was estimated using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Mean serum retinol levels of both babies and mothers were found to be adequate, being 48 and 57 μg/dl, respectively. Significant correlation (p < 0.01) was obtained between serum retinol levels for the babies and their mothers. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that vitamin A deficiency is not present among the neonates and their mothers studied. A larger population survey is recommended in some high risk areas of Kuwait.